Special Technology Sessions (STS) on Greening of Aviation, Transport and Renewable Energy

Special Technology Sessions (STS) in Aviation, Surface Transport, Renewable Energy, Information Technology and Related Industry Areas

Already since the ECCOMAS Congress 1996 in Paris, Special Technology Sessions (STS) have been organised on technologies and research especially of relevance for industrial applications, mainly in the field of aeronautics but also for research in renewable energy, transport, information technology and other industry areas. At every ECCOMAS Congress and CFD Conference since then, by numerous papers the STS presented the progress and achievements of research and industrial technology activities, especially also from activities within the Research Framework Programmes of the European Union.

List of Confirmed Special Technology Sessions

R&I Computational Physics/Computational Mathematics results to be presented in this STS by invited scientists, technologists and meteorologists will consider the minimisation of aviation CO2 and non-CO2 emissions with following targets: i) increase the scientific understanding related to the contribution of aviation Greenhouse gas emissions to climate change, ii) increase performances of multi engines distributed propulsion particle emissions characterisation, iii) achieve better performances with hydrogen and aviation synthetic fuel reducing further non-CO2 missions, or iv) characterize better the contrail formation and effects and provide more insight in the aviation NOx emissions and ozone formation. v) develop further real-time decision-support software for airlines and ATM, to predict the location and global warming impact of contrail and contrail cirrus formation This STS will provide the audience with innovative methods and tools in different i) -v) sectors recent studies showing the decrease of CO2 – non CO2 emissions and the cost-effective mitigation measures and computations resolving uncertainty short term or long terms climate impact.
Organized by: J. Periaux (CIMNE, France) and G. Bugeda (CIMNE, Spain)
Keywords: aviation CO2 emissions, aviation non-CO2 emissions, cirrus formation
Both the United Nations climate conference of Paris in December 2015 and Europe's Vision for Aviation 'Flightpath 2050' sets have set a target of 75% reduction of specific fuel consumption by 2050, compared to the standard for civil aviation in 2000. To achieve this ambitious goal, we need to work on three topics: improvement of engine efficiency, reduction of the aircraft weight, and aerodynamic drag reduction. In this session, we cover some aspects of the last topic, the reduction of aerodynamic drag. The latter consists of two main components: lift-independent (friction or viscous) drag and lift-dependent or induced drag. Both drag components will be addressed in the session. Regarding friction drag reduction, we present new developments of the application of natural laminar flow. We will consider forward-swept wings, which make it easier to keep the attachment line laminar. Furthermore, we take a look at a backward-swept, laminar wing with a reduced chord which is complemented by a larger span. This approach combines two advantages. The smaller chord-Reynolds number makes it easier to achieve and maintain laminar flow, and the increased span reduces the induced drag. Then we will present the latest results of Clean Aviation regarding hybrid laminar flow control applied to wing and horizontal tail plane. In the second part of the session, we address new structural concepts combined with advanced load alleviation, which have a great potential to allow for a lighter wing with increased span, and, thus, reduce lift-dependant drag. A fuel burn reduction of 30 % compared to the state-of-the-art reference Aircraft A321neo is expected.
Organized by: G. Schrauf (esploro projects, Germany)
Keywords: Drag Reduction, Friction Drag, Induced Drag, Laminar Flow, Wing Span Extension
With an increased interest in electrification for aviation, attention is drawn to optimizing the overall aircraft/engine thermal management, which involves designing more efficient heat exchangers (HEX). In this STS, various technologies and software available for both design and optimization of cold-plate HEXs will be discussed and reviewed. The focus would be on methods that can both analyze the heat sources that represents power electronics components for aviation applications and also design new novel geometries to address the cooling requirements. One of the key technologies we would like to discuss is the thermal-fluid topology optimization [1] for HEXs for turbomachinery jet-engine applications. Some of the Key technologies for an optimum design of HEXs would be hi-fidelity conjugate CFD simulation, automatic meshing of very complex geometries, multi-physics simulation, advances in Additive-layering Manufacturing (ALM) as well as testing and experimentation to support the design. Novel shapes resulting from topology optimization that could only be manufactured using ALM will also be exhibited and discussed. Furthermore, we explore how these technologies can be extended to other design problem like the optimum fuel passages for PEMFCs (Hydrogen Fuel Cells), etc. Presentations are also expected from an ongoing R&D work as part of the EU Horizon Europe project NextAir to produce a fully-fledged Digital Twin of a Heat-Exchanger [2]. References: [1] Raske, N, Ausin Gonzalez, O, Furino, S, Pietropaoli, M, Shahpar, S, & Montomoli, F. "Thermal Management for Electrification in Aircraft Engines: Optimization of Coolant System." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2022, Netherlands. June, 2022. V06BT13A013. ASME. [2] NEXTAIR - multi-disciplinary digital - enablers for NEXT-generation AIRcraft design and operations, (WP6: Digital Twin of a HEX) - DOI: 10.3030/101056732, Sept 2022.
Organized by: S. Shahpar (Rolls-Royce Plc, United Kingdom)
Keywords: AI- Machine-learning, ALM, Hydrogen fuel cells, Multi-physics simulation, Topology Optimisation
Efficient transportation of perishable goods, such as food and medicine, poses substantial challenges in maintaining their quality and timely delivery. This session aims to address these hurdles by introducing innovative computational and technological solutions. In this session, we will delve into enhanced logistics planning strategies that leverage cutting-edge machine learning methods. By harnessing predictive analytics and adaptive algorithms, we aim to develop transport route planning, minimizing transit times and mitigating environmental impact. The session will showcase a diverse range of research endeavors and practical implementations, emphasizing the crucial role of technology in elevating the standards of transporting perishable goods. Join us as we explore pioneering advancements in transportation technology and logistics management, setting the stage for more sustainable and efficient delivery systems for essential goods.
Organized by: P. Neittaamäki (University of Lappeenranta , Finland)
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, cold chains, Optimization, transport
The “European Green Deal” [1] has set ambitious goals for the transport sector, calling for a 90% reduction in its greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. To achieve this systemic change, the European Commission has adopted the “Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy” [2] which aims to ensure that the EU transport sector is fit for a clean, digital and modern economy. Among others, this strategy indicates that all modes of transport should be made more sustainable, and outlines the need for the decarbonisation and energy efficiency improvement of aviation and maritime transport in particular. To this end, digitalisation and automation will become important drivers to deliver on these greening objectives and to maintain and reinforce the EU’s leadership, and competitiveness. It is also essential that key digital enablers for design, manufacturing and automation are in place for all transport modes. This includes electronic components for mobility, network infrastructure, cloud-to-edge resources, data technologies and governance, digital twins, as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI). Thanks to the continuously increasing capabilities of High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware, digitalized design can facilitate the testing, certification and deployment of the innovative solutions required to minimize the environmental impact of airborne and waterborne transport. Further advancement of multi-disciplinary design optimization methodologies and simulation tools, along with integration of AI methods and big data analysis are thus important challenges to address, in order to reduce emissions during the industrial production process and the entire product lifecycle. The European Commission’s European Climate, Infrastructure and Environment Executive Agency (CINEA) is currently implementing a broad portfolio of collaborative R&I projects, funded under Horizon 2020 and Horizon Europe, which are contributing to the European Green Deal through the aforementioned specific technological challenges. These projects are developing and applying advanced methods for modelling, simulation, optimization and design of technologies contributing to the mitigation of the environmental impact in airborne, road and waterborne transport. The portfolio of EU-funded projects managed by CINEA is expected to be further enhanced by selecting new projects from upcoming calls for proposals within the Horizon Europe Cluster 5 on Climate, Energy and Mobility.
Organized by: G. Bampanis (European Commission - CINEA, Belgium) and D. Knoerzer (Aeronautics Consultant, Belgium)
Keywords: aerodynamics, AI, automated transport, Aviation, climate impact, emissions, energy efficiency, road, waterborne
The STS, organized by Chinese Aeronautical Establishment (CAE), will address the most recently developed computational methods and its applications in aeronautical science and technology. The topics include: – Computational aerodynamics, – Computational structure and material mechanics, – Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in numerical simulations, – Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) coupled MDAO, and the – Concepts of new energy air vehicle, Special aspects will be the applications for the global Climate-Neutral Aviation.
Organized by: W. Bai (Chinese Aeronautical Establishment (CAE), China)
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Computational Aerodynamics, Computational Structure, Model-Based Systems Engineering, New Energy Air Vehicles
The STS is based on the project EFACA (Environmentally Friendly Aviation for All Classes of Aircraft) that is supported by the European union in the period 2023-2026. It is intended to give a global overview of the challenges associated with the greening of aviation, taking as example an 80-seat 1000-km regional airliner with hybrid turboelectric propulsion, and including (i) overall design, (ii) critical technologies, (iii) economic and market prospects and (iv) environmental benefits. The STS consists of presentations addressing the following topics: • Overview of all aspects of the project EFACA, with focus on those aspects that have been selected for the following seven presentations in this STS. • Preliminary design of an 80-seat 1000 km range regional airliner with hybrid turboelectric propulsion (HTEP) consisting of gas turbine and hydrogen fuel cell. • The most innovative element of the electrified regional airliner, namely the HTEP system as concerns components and integration. • One of the critical technologies for HTEP, concerning cryogenic fuel tanks for liquid hydrogen bearing in mind their larger volume compared with traditional fossil fuels for the same range. • Another of the critical technologies for HTEP, namely hydrogen fuel cells with particular challenges of cooling and efficiency at altitude for aeronautical applications. • Market prospects of the regional aircraft using HTEP as a replacement for existing fossil fuelled airliners, bearing in mind the additional complexity (preceding presentations) and environmental benefits (following presentations) and their impact on economics and operations. • Benefits of a regional airliner using HTEP as concerns reductions of environmental impact in terms of emissions and noise at airport and global level. • Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAFs) focusing on alternative technologies for the production of alternatives to current fossil fuels.
Organized by: L. Braga da Costa Campos (Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal)
Keywords: critical technologies, Green aircraft, hybrid turboelectric propulsion, hydrogen, regional aircraft
The present STS at ECCOMAS 2024 will include five contributions concerning novel wing morphing, able to drastically increase the aerodynamic performances leading to a considerable fuel’s consumption decrease and noise sources reduction. Emphasis will be attributed in the efficiency of multiscale electrical actuations with increased DoF over strategic areas of the lifting structures. The presentations analyse the morphing effects on the fluid-structure interaction, beneficially manipulating the surrounding turbulence towards drag reduction, increase of lift and noise sources attenuation. The new morphing designs ensure a considerable energy decrease for the propulsion, beneficial for all sources of renewal energy. These studies are a continuation from the EU-funded Horizon 2020research project N° 723402 SMS, “Smart Morphing and Sensing for aeronautical configurations”, and They are performed in the context of the HORIZON-EIC-2023-PATHFINDER Project N° 101129952 – BEALIVE, "Bioinspired Electroactive multiscale Aeronautical Live skin", The presentations included in this STS analyse through High-Fidelity numerical approaches, the effects of spatial and temporal modulation of the actuation frequencies and amplitudes applied through novel smart actuators disposed in a distributed way on the “skin” of the lifting structure. These designs are able to produce optimal interfacial layers interacting with the coherent and chaotic turbulence structures and applying deformation of strategic parts of the wing. The topic of this session prepares future wing design for aeronautics industrial applications aiming at saving energy and at reducing the pollution through these new, multiple-degrees-of freedom morphing concepts, enabling a considerable reduction of emissions, meeting the targets fixed by Flightpath 2050: Europe’s Vision for Aviation [1].
Organized by: M. Braza (Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse, France) and Y. Hoarau (ICUBE - University of Strasbourg, France)
Keywords: Aerodynamic Performance, Emissions reduction, High-Fidelity Numerical Simulations, Smart Morphing and Sensing, Wing Design
This session will include contributions from researchers working on advanced aerodynamic simulation and shape optimisation, such as hybrid RANS/LES, and shape design optimisation, such adjoint based methods, for applications from the design of very large off-shore wind turbine blades to potential future large transport aircraft, such as the blended wing body and the truss-braced wing aircraft.
Organized by: N. Qin (The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom)
Keywords: Adjoint methods, Aerodynamic shape optimisation, novel aircraft configurations
Industrial design is facing new challenges in a world threaten by global warming, economical and geo-political instability. In this contest, the need of decreasing emissions in air, for all the activities related to aviation, transport and renewable energy, has become an utmost priority, also considering the commitments made by the European Commission for the next years. In particular, net greenhouse gas emissions will have to be reduced by at least 55% by 2030, and at the same time it will be necessary to fulfil the growing energy demand of all the EU industrial countries. Following this perspective, the new emerging technologies in Industrial design, many of them already developed in the framework of several European Programme of Research & Innovation projects, need to reach soon a TRL of over 8-9 level, which means that they need to be implemented in a complete and qualified system, ready for the commercialization. This STS addresses all the emerging technologies which aim to reach a greener transition of the industrial design, and includes in a non-exhaustive way efficient Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) methodologies, Design based on Artificial Intelligence, whether by Surrogate Models, Machine Learning, Reduced Order Models or Multi-Fidelity Models, and Robust Design or Design under Uncertainties. This STS invites experts from industry, research institutions and universities, to present their recent studies and applications of the new emerging technologies above mentioned in the design of greener, more efficient and more sustainable aviation and transport systems, or renewable energy.
Organized by: A. Clarich (ESTECO, Italy)
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, multidisciplinary analysis and optimisation (MDAO), Robust Design
Within the framework of the European Project SSECOID: Stability and Sensitivity Methods for Flow Control and Industrial Design, this Special Technology Sessions (STS) aims to uncover ongoing advances in numerical and computational methods for fluid mechanics. This broad goal encloses not only the development of standard numerical schemes for the integration of the Navier Stokes equations, but also state-of-the-art Lattice Boltzmann or the difficulties and progress in the application of high-order schemes to more realistic industrial configurations, in particular the implementation of prevailing methods in present and future computational platforms, with an eye on exascale computing. Moreover, the huge amount of data generated by numerical tools needs further postprocessing: data assimilation methods and machine learning as a way to obtain the flow sensitivity under perturbation, eventually linked to stability, optimization and control, can provide very valuable information about the flow. Several algorithms, such as DMD, POD, SPOD or Resolvent can obtain very important information that helps to identify relevant features, which are critical to understand the flow behaviour and, finally, will provide valuable information to control it. New developments and application of those methodologies to feature detection, optimization strategies and control are welcome.
Organized by: E. Valero (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Spain)
Keywords: Industrial design, Sensitivity methods, Stability
The aviation sector presently accounts for over 2% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and this contribution is steadily rising. Without additional interventions, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from international aviation could surge nearly fourfold by 2050 compared to 2010. It is a collective responsibility of the scientific community and the aeronautical industry to pioneer novel, more efficient designs. In the pursuit of enhanced efficiency and environmental responsibility, numerical simulation techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), are emerging as pivotal tools in aeronautical design. These tools will be the linchpin differentiating success from failure. Nevertheless, despite the current integration of CFD in the design process, there exists a pressing need to elevate the capabilities of existing numerical simulation tools tailored for aeronautical design. This entails a transformative shift toward re-engineering these tools to harness the power of extreme-scale parallel computing platforms. This strategic transition will empower the aerospace industry to leverage High-Performance Computing (HPC) within the design loop, a crucial step toward achieving the performance and environmental objectives outlined in the European Union's ambitious targets. The present mini symposium will be focused on the efforts to address this challenge. The topics of interest are related to improving the convergence of current numerical algorithms; adaptive mesh refinement algorithms; increase the maturity of HoM; overcome barriers to achieving extreme scale computing (load balancing, communication patterns, GPU integration, etc.); development of algorithms for data management, visualisation and modelling and benchmarking of large-scale aeronautical applications.
Organized by: O. Lehmkuhl (Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Spain)
STS proposed for: Special Technology Sessions (STS) on Greening of Aviation, Transport and Renewable Energy Title: HAR wing design and development for an SMR aircraft Chairs: Jos Vankan (NLR), Bruno Stefes (Airbus), see affiliations below Abstract: Sustainable aviation is a major challenge that requires technology developments in many different areas. One important area is the reduction of green-house gas (GHG) emissions, which is directly related to aircraft operations and energy efficiency. One of the key components for improving aircraft efficiency is drag reduction, and increased wing aspect ratio is a key enabler for that. Therefore this STS will focus on technologies for design and development of high aspect ratio (HAR) wings for short- and medium range (SMR) aircraft. This category of aircraft is responsible for a major contribution in aviation GHG emissions and is therefore important to address. At the same time, these aircraft have high-tech wings with advanced aerodynamics, optimized structures and complex integration of primary and secondary flight controls. The further improvement of these high-tech wings requires advanced modelling, innovative computational methods and design tools for all required technology areas. In particular, increasing the wing aspect ratio will require special attention for load control, for which combined numerical-experimental investigations are being pursued for example in the Clean Aviation UP Wing project. The STS will invite papers on the design, modelling, analysis, testing, validation, manufacturing and assembly of all the relevant technologies that are involved in the development of these advanced high-aspect ratio wings. Chairs’ affiliations: Jos Vankan Principal scientist Royal Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR Aerospace Vehicles Division, Collaborative Engineering Systems Department Anthony Fokkerweg 2, 1059 CM Amsterdam, The Netherlands T +31-88-5113059 | E | W Dr.Ing. Bruno Stefes Flight Physics Airbus Operations GmbH - Bremen, Germany M +49 172 4032258 | E
Organized by: J. VANKAN (NLR, Netherlands) and B. Stefes (Airbus, Germany)
Keywords: aerodynamics, elastic structures, high-aspect ratio, loads control, short-medium range aircraft
The proposed STS will cover computational methodologies and their applications to aircraft design with particular interest in technologies available for next-generation aircraft such as a "greener" aviation to mitigate an environmental impact. Examples of the computational methodologies include multi-objective design optimization, multi-physics simulation including fluid-structure interaction analysis, (unsteady) aerodynamic simulation, and geometrically nonlinear and/or material nonlinear analysis of structures. The application of these methodologies may include but are not limited to a reduction of the airframe weight by utilizing carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) and/or thermoplastics (CFRTPs), optimization of the stacking sequence of CFRPs, a reduction of the aerodynamic drag by laminarization technology, and design constraints considering flutter and buffet boundaries by fluid-structure interaction analyses. Furthermore, presentations from industries and governmental organizations are also welcome to introduce a current status and potential problems on the development of aircraft with existent simulation technologies. Finally, we will not limit our scope to the examples above and encourage participants to propose a wide range of possible simulation technologies and frameworks that would benefit the development of a new-generation aircraft.
Organized by: Y. Abe (Tohoku University, Japan), K. Shirasu (Tohoku University, Japan), T. Okabe (Tohoku University, Japan) and S. Obayashi (Tohoku University, Japan)
Keywords: multi-objective design optimization, multi-physics simulation, aeronautical applications, Aircraft design, Structural optimization